A Blu-ray disc (BD) is an optical storage medium that has a significantly higher storage capacity than a DVD: namely 25GB for a single layer disc or 50GB for a double-layer disc. Another major advantage of the Blu-ray disc is its greater data throughput. This describes the volume of data that can be read per second. The Blu-ray disc is ideal for playing back full HD films which are much sharper than films in conventional DVD format. The increased storage capacity and greater data throughput of Blu-ray discs means films can be enjoyed in high-resolution quality with amazing sound, even at home.
Bluetooth is a wireless technology for transmitting data across short distances. Bluetooth allows the wireless connection of multiple devices for the purposes of control or monitoring. For instance, many wireless keyboards and mice communicate with the PC in this way. It also allows you to easily synchronise data from your mobile phone or PDA with your PC. Bluetooth 4.0 is currently the fastest standard and is backwards compatible with all preceding versions. The main advantage is lower power consumption with significantly faster transmission.
Programs which allow you to view web pages are referred to as browsers. Browsers are installed not only on notebooks, netbooks and smartphones, but also on most of today’s mobile phones. Depending on the browser type, they allow access to the mobile Internet.
Byte is the basic unit of measurement for electronic data. Hard disk space is normally specified, for example, in gigabytes (GB) or terabytes (TB). Generally: 1024 bytes are 1 kilobyte (KB). 1024 kilobytes equal 1 megabyte (MB). 1024 megabytes are equivalent to 1 gigabyte (GB) and 1024 gigabytes correspond to 1 terabyte (TB). Or: 1 TB = 1024 GB = 1048576 MB = 1073741824 KB = 1099511627776 B.
The cache is a temporary memory buffer in which recently accessed data is stored. This storage prevents frequently required data from having to be reloaded and regenerated again and again. Literally speaking, cache means a secret store. The name reflects the fact that a cache generally performs its task in the background
DirectX is a collection of programming interfaces specially aimed at optimising sound and graphics performance in Microsoft Windows. DirectX is at the heart of many games, because it is used for the generation of complex 2D and 3D graphics. It is also used for sound reproduction and for controlling input devices and networks. DirectX is therefore an absolute must for many games and is generally recommended if the computer is being used for multimedia.
DVB-T stands for digital video broadcasting – terrestrial. This digital terrestrial television is also marketed in Germany as “everywhere television”. Depending on the region, up to 24 programs can be received (in Germany). The number of available stations is set to rise even further in the long term. There are no charges for DVB-T transmission. Only the licence fees are payable.
DVB-C stands for digital video broadcasting – cable. Both digital television channels and radio channels are received using an appropriate set top box.
DVB-S stands for digital video broadcasting – satellite. In other words: digital television via satellite. Both television and radio channels can be received via a satellite dish. Digital satellite television offers a larger selection of channels and no additional fees are payable. However, a receiving system (satellite dish) must be installed for DBV-S.
DVB-S2 is a development of the DVB-S standard which allows the reception of high-resolution satellite television. Among other things, DVB-S2 provides greater bandwidth for this than the former DVB-S.
Video signals are transmitted to monitors or televisions in digital quality via a digital visual interface (DVI). Since HD content is only transmitted digitally, the DVI interface provides the ability to play back high-resolution images which are much sharper and offer truer colour and more contrast than with analogue transmission. There are various connection variants: DVI-I can transmit both analogue and digital signals. DVI-D can only send digital signals to the monitor. DVI-A only transmits the analogue signal.
The DisplayPort is a standardised interface for the transmission of digital video and audio signals. Regardless of which video interface the end device has, the DisplayPort controls HDMI, DVI and VGA input via an adapter. Unlike DVI and HDMI, the DisplayPort takes up much less space. Its small size makes it ideal for notebooks and netbooks. The DisplayPort supports HDCP copy protection.
The electronic program guide is a virtual program guide on digital receiving devices (DVB). This is overview of program information that can be browsed using the remote control like a magazine. It can also be used to for programming recordings.
The ExpressCard is the successor to the PC card, a standardised expansion card for notebooks. Since these are designed to be as compact as possible, the PC card was developed as a standard interface for using additional hardware such as a modem, fax, network card or ISDN card. The basic advantages of the ExpressCard over the PC card are the higher transfer rates, universal use and favourable size factor. They are not compatible, however.
eSATA stands for external serial advanced technology attachment. eSATA is an interface for connecting external devices such as hard disks. Thanks to the high transfer rates, data is transferred in just a few seconds without any speed disadvantages compared with internal hard disks.
Ethernet is the most commonly installed local network and uses the RJ45 connector. Transfer rates are 10MB/s, 100MB/s (Fast Ethernet) and 1GB/s (Gigabit Ethernet).
The fingerprint sensor offers you protection from unauthorised access to your data or devices. It is an easy-to-use system that saves you from having to remember passwords. It can be used to reliably protect portable devices such as notebooks and navigation systems. The user identifies him/herself via fingerprint and is then allowed direct access to his/her selected and/or protected files or devices.
Like USB, FireWire is a serial interface that creates a direct connection between the computer and external devices such as a camcorder. The advantage of FireWire over USB is the higher transfer rate. The transfer rates are 400, 800, 1600 and 3200 MB/s. FireWire is also known as IEEE 1394.
High bandwidth digital content protection (HDCP for short) is an encoding/decoding system for the protected transmission of audio and video data. This copy protection developed by Intel is used in digital DVI and HDMI connections. To play back protected content, the playback device requires HDCP support.
The abbreviation HDMI stands for high definition multimedia interface. HDMI is the first fully digital interface that transmits both video and audio signals without data loss. HDMI allows any number of components in a home entertainment system to be connected to one another with optimum quality. HDMI always has HDCP incorporated as copy protection.
HDD stands for hard disk drive. The hard disk is a magnetic storage medium for storing data.
Hyper-threading is an innovative technology from Intel which speeds up computers without increasing the clock speed. Each processor core can process two tasks, or threads, simultaneously and independently of one another. The principle is similar to a person working with both hands. Because he uses both hands independently, he can carry out two different tasks at the same time. This ensures efficient use of processor resources, greater processing throughput and improved performance. Demanding and resource-intensive applications run in parallel – quicker and without any unwanted delays.
IEEE 802.11, better known as WLAN or Wi-Fi, refers to an international wireless standard for wireless data communication developed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). The letters a, b, g and n stand for expansions of the standard. The latest expansion 802.11n, also referred to as n standard, offers data speeds of 300 MBit/s and increased ranges. All current MEDION notebooks and PCs usually have all four expansions.
Data can be wirelessly transmitted between devices, e.g. a PC and a printer, using an infrared interface.
The LED backlight is an illumination system for monitors, flat screen TVs and notebook displays that delivers a brighter picture with higher contrast and more intense black tones. Compared with standard illumination types which use fluorescent lighting, LED background lighting is also more environmentally sound and energy-efficient. This is especially useful for notebooks which can operate longer on a single charge thanks to LED backlighting. They also benefit in terms of their formal design. Thanks to LED backlighting, notebooks – like flat screen TVs – can be built flatter than ever before. Some current LCD TVs with LED backlighting are just 25 mm deep.
Line in and out connections are inputs and outputs for audio signals. The line out connection is used to connect speakers or headphones to a PC or notebook. The line in connection can be used, for example, to receive music from the stereo system.
LAN stands for local area network. In a local network, several computers and peripheral devices are connected to one another inside a single building or site. The connection is made either via copper or fibre optic cables or wireless (WLAN). Ethernet is the most commonly installed local network.
The li-ion battery (or lithium-ion battery) is characterised by its high energy density. It can be recharged without memory effect and weighs much less than normal batteries. These properties make the Li-ion battery particularly well suited for mobile phones, digital cameras and notebooks.
Lithium polymer battery
The lithium polymer battery (also Li-polymer battery) is a further development of the Li-ion battery. Unlike the Li-ion battery, the lithium polymer battery can be moulded and is not restricted to a rectangular box shape.
The term Megapixel (MP) is a common term used in digital photography. Digital images are composed of individual pixels. One megapixel is one million pixels. A 6 MP digital camera takes shots with a resolution of 6 million pixels. The resolution of a webcam is also specified in megapixels. Digital photo copies require approx. 1 megapixel in 10 x 15 cm format. This can be as much as 3.5 megapixels for DIN A4 format.
Touch-sensitive input device displays or touchpads with multitouch are capable of recognising more than one finger. Leafing through documents, writing notes or viewing photos – all of the required functions are controlled easily and conveniently with the fingers; using intuitive gestures for typing, deleting, pinching screens open and closed.
The notebook, also known as the laptop, is a mobile computer that generally fits on your lap. The components of a notebook are optimised for mobile use. Special notebook processors work more energy-efficiently and are designed for longer battery life but are not as powerful as desktop computers. Notebooks usually feature LED backlight displays that produce a brighter image with greater contrast and deeper black tones and are therefore much more environmentally friendly and save energy. For optimum typing comfort, a numeric keypad is integrated into all models with screen sizes of 39.6 cm (15,6”) or more. Due to their reduced size, laptops generally have less connections than desktop PCs. Most notebooks offer standard interfaces such as multi-card readers, USB, LAN and HDMI output. WLAN is integrated as standard. Bluetooth is generally optionally available or can be added cheaply later via USB stick. Notebooks represent a space-saving alternative to large desktop computers.
A netbook is a class of small notebooks – up to 29.5 cm/11.6” – in which the focus is on long battery life, mobile Internet usage and simple applications such as word processing and e-mail programs. Thanks to their light weight and compact size, netbooks are extremely portable. They are perfectly suited for mobile use.
Nvidia’s Optimus technology has been specially developed for notebooks. It automatically detects whether or not high graphic performance is required and activated or not as needed. Depending on the application, the system switches between the integrated and the discrete graphics GPU so that the user either has outstanding graphic performance or long battery life.
PCPC is short for personal computer, a computing device that can be operated, used and controlled by one person (therefore personal). In addition to word processing and spreadsheet calculation tasks, one of its main areas of use these days is for multimedia applications. A computer consists of hardware and software. The tangible components (physical components) of the PC count as hardware. A distinction is made here between input and output devices. Input devices include: mouse, keyboard, joystick, graphics tablet or scanner. Monitors, printers and speakers, on the other hand, are output devices. A PC can not be operated with hardware alone. It requires software to bring it to ‘life’. With software, a distinction is made between operating systems and application programs. An operating system (e.g. Windows, Linux, Mac OS X) controls and manages the hardware and all of the other software. To perform various actions using the PC – for instance, writing, surfing the Internet or editing photos – application programs (Word, Internet Explorer, Photoshop, etc.) are also required.
The processor, also known as the CPU (central processing unit), is the computer’s computing apparatus. It executes the various processes and applications – in other words the commands of the operating system and other running software – either in series (single core processors) or in parallel (multi-core processors). The greater the processor power, the quicker the computer is able to execute commands. The clock speed, stated in hertz, gives an indication of the performance.
The RAM or working memory is a computer’s short-term memory. This is where it temporarily stores all the data that it currently needs in order to speed up access times. When the computer is switched off, all data stored in the RAM is automatically deleted. The more RAM a computer has, the quicker and more fluidly it can process data or make data available. In Windows Vista, for example, at least two gigabytes are required for smooth operation. Only professionals using special operating systems require more than four gigabytes
RJ45 is a standardised plug connection for data transmission within networks. The letters RJ stand for registered jack.
A router allows multiple computers to be connected to a network. Many routers are WLAN capable and have an integrated DSL modem which establishes an Internet connection.
The S-ATA (short for serial advanced technology attachment) is a hard disk standard that is primarily used for exchanging data between processors and hard disks. S-ATA has three advantages over its predecessor, ATA: Higher data transfer rates, easier cable routing and the possibility to exchange data media during operation. Nowadays, S-ATA DVD drives and writers, card readers are now available as well as the external eSATA interface, which is now a rival standard to USB and FireWire.
S/PDIF (Sony/Philips Digital Interface) is a consumer electronics industry standard interface for transmitting digital audio signals. It is used in devices such as CD players, DVD players or receivers. The transfer can be achieved by both electrical (coax.) and optical (opt.) means.
The SSD (Solid State Disk) is the next generation of hard drives. The SSD offers high reading and writing speeds. Files are read and then stored again quickly and the time taken for a system start can be cut in half. Because the SSD consists of flash memory components and does not include any mechanical components, it works almost silently and is much more robust in the event of vibrations. You data is therefore extremely secure on the hard drive. The SSD also stands out in terms of its energy consumption, which has benefits for the battery life. In contrast, the standard Hard Disk Drive (HDD) consists of mechanical components that are more sensitive to vibration, which means data can be damaged e.g. when dropped. In addition, there is a certain level of noise generated due to the rotating data carrier from which information is scanned by the read head.
The smart cache allows the L2 cache to be dynamically assigned to the various CPU cores. If one CPU core is inactive, the entire L2 cache is assigned to the other CPU core. When both cores are active, it attempts to assign the greatest portion to the core with the most cache-intensive task. The benefits of smart cache include better capacity utilisation and improved data sharing between the CPU cores. If the second core requires data that the first core has already loaded, it will find this already in the L2 cache. All Intel processors with more than one core, e.g. the Intel Core Duo or Core i processor technology have smart cache.
S-Video out is an analogue output for transmitting video signals as well as colour and brightness information. This output is used to transfer image signals from DVD players, notebooks and video cameras to the television.
A touch screen is a touch sensitive display that can be operated using a finger or a stylus. Touch screens are frequently used on tablet PCs, monitors, notebooks or navigation systems.
Turbo Boost Technology
Intel’s Turbo Boost Technology is a function used by the new Intel Core i processor family Where necessary, the Turbo Boost Technology automatically increases the clock speed of individual processor cores and can even clock above the specified frequency providing certain values for power consumption and temperature are not exceeded. The effect: the user benefits from particularly high performance at just the right time.
Ultrabook™ is a new class of notebook introduced by Intel. Notebooks in this class are particularly thin and offer excellent mobility and high performance thanks to their long battery life and low weight. Ultrabooks are also characterised by fast boot times. To bear the name, Ultrabooks must fulfil a series of requirements defined by Intel: They may be a maximum of 21 mm thick, must feature a battery life of 5 to 8 (or more) hours and include an SSD (Solid State Drive). Ultrabooks also operate using energy-efficient Intel Core i Processors (ultra-low-voltage processors).
The universal serial bus (USB for short) developed by Intel is an interface for connecting external components such as a mouse, keyboard, printer, scanner, camera, etc. USB 2.0’s transfer rate of 480 MBit/s makes the interface also increasingly suitable for the rapid transfer of high volumes of data. The new USB 3.0 standard can even achieve speeds of up to 5 GBit/s. The new USB 3.0 standard is therefore up to ten times quicker than its predecessor USB 2.0
VGA is the abbreviation of video graphics array. Analogue image signals are transmitted from the PC to the monitor or television via the VGA connection.
Using a webcam, images can be transmitted to the Internet either as individual images or in real time as a live stream. Nowadays, webcams are primarily used in communication, e.g. in video telephony via Skype or in chat. Images are often also uploaded to the net from famous places, tourist attractions or destinations (holiday and ski resorts). These are then generally individual images updated every few minutes.
The term widescreen is used for all widescreen formats that are wider than 4:3 format. These include 16:9 and 16:10 formats. The widescreen format used for both televisions and computer screens, represents an aspect ratio found to be particularly pleasing to the human eye.
Wireless display (WiDi)
Wireless display (WiDi for short) is a technology by Intel® designed to transmit screen content, from a notebook for example, wirelessly to the television. It is especially useful for presentations, a photo show or films – with no limit to the radius of movement, as is the case with cable connections. Your television must support WiDi to receive the signal sent from the notebook. If the television does not support WiDi, a suitable adapter/box can be used to receive the signal. Simply connect the additional TV adapter to the television via HDMI, start Intel® WiDi, select display adapter and enjoy images in large format. (SD, SDHC, microSD are registered trademarks of SanDisk.)
WLAN stands for wireless local area network. In general usage, WLAN is used to mean a wireless network based on IEEE 802.11. WLAN is a generic term for technologies and standards used to create wireless networks however, e.g. via Bluetooth or infrared. Within the reception range, WLAN enables the wireless connection of computers and notebooks to one another as well as to the Internet and external components such as printers, scanners or hard disks.
The RAM or working memory is a computer’s short-term memory. This is where it temporarily stores all the data that it currently needs in order to speed up access times. When the computer is switched off, all data stored in the RAM is automatically deleted. The more RAM a computer has, the quicker and more fluidly it can process data or make data available. In Windows Vista, for example, at least two gigabytes are required for smooth operation. Only professionals using special operating systems require more than four gigabytes.
YUV is an analogue input for video signals including colour and brightness information. This input is primarily used in professional monitors and high-end projectors. The quality of YUV is considered superior to conventional video and S-video inputs.